Bookmark and Share

Christ in the history of humanity that preceded him
(Is 42, 1-4)

Catechesis by Pope St John Paul II on the History of Salvation (3 of 119)
General Audience, Wednesday 3 December 1997 - also in French, German, Italian, Portuguese & Spanish

"1. "The Word was made flesh and came to dwell among us" (Jn 1, 14).

With this strong and concise affirmation, the evangelist John expresses the event of Incarnation. He also spoke of the Word shortly before, contemplating the/his eternal existence and describing it with the well-known words: "In the beginning was the Word" (Jn 1, 1). In this Johannine perspective, which links eternity to time, the mysterious pathway accomplished by Christ is also inscribed in the history that preceded him.

His presence in our world began to be announced long before the Incarnation. The Word has been in some way present in the history of humanity from the very beginning. Through the Spirit, He prepared his coming as Saviour, secretly orientating hearts to cultivate expectation in hope. Traces of a hope of liberation are encountered in different religious cultures and traditions.

2. But Christ is present in a particular way in the history of the people of Israel, the people of the Covenant. This history is specifically characterized by the expectation of a Messiah, an ideal king, consecrated by God, who would fully realise the promises of the Lord. As this orientation became gradually clearer, Christ progressively revealed his/the true face of the promised and longed-for Messiah, also leaving glimpses of traits of acute suffering against the background of a violent death (cf Is 53, 8). In fact, the historical fulfillment of the prophecies with the scandal of the cross radically put into crisis a certain messianic image, consolidated in a part of the Jewish people, who expected a rather political liberator, bearer of national autonomy and material well-being.

3. In his earthly life, Jesus clearly manifests the/his consciousness/awareness of being (the) reference point for the history of his people. To those who reproached him for feeling/claiming to be greater than Abraham for/by having promised the overcoming of death to those who observed his word (cf Jn 8, 51), He replies: "Abraham, your father, rejoiced in the hope of seeing my day; he saw it and rejoiced/was glad" (Jn 8, 56). Abraham was thus oriented towards the coming of Christ. According to the divine plan, Abraham’s joy at the birth of Isaac and at his rebirth after the sacrifice was a messianic joy: it announced and prefigured the definitive joy that would be offered by the Saviour.

4. Other eminent figures of the Jewish people shine in their full value in the light of Christ. This is the case of/with Jacob, which emerges from the Gospel account of Jesus’ encounter with the Samaritan woman.

The well which the ancient patriarch had left to his sons became, in the words of Christ, prefiguration of the water that He would give, the water of the Holy Spirit, water that gushes for eternal life (cf Jn 4, 14).

Moses also announces some of the basic aspects of Christ’s mission. As liberator of the people from their slavery in Egypt, he symbolically anticipates the true exodus of the New Covenant, constituted by the paschal mystery. As legislator of the Old Covenant, he prefigures Jesus who promulgates the Gospel Beatitudes and guides believers with the interior law of the Spirit. Even the manna that Moses gives the hungry people is a basic figure of God's definitive gift. "Truly, truly, I say to you, it was not Moses who gave you the bread from heaven; my Father gives you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is that which comes down from heaven, and gives life to the world" (Jn 6, 32-33). The Eucharist fulfils the meaning hidden in the gift of manna. Christ thus presents himself as the true and perfect fulfilment of what was symbolically foretold in the Old Covenant.

Another of Moses’ acts has a prophetic value: to quench the thirst of the people in the desert, he makes water flow from the rock. On the "feast of Tabernacles", Jesus promises to quench humanity's spiritual thirst: "If anyone thirst, let him come to me and drink. He who believes in me, as Scripture says, ‘Out of his heart shall flow rivers of living water’" (Jn 7, 37-38). The abundant outpouring of the Holy Spirit announced by Jesus with the image of rivers of living water is prefigured in the water given by Moses. St Paul, in referring to this messianic event, also stresses the mysterious reference to Christ: "All drank the same supernatural drink. For they drank from the supernatural Rock that followed them, and the Rock was Christ" (1 Cor 10, 4).

Along with Abraham, Jacob and Moses, David also refers to Christ. He is aware that the Messiah will descend from him, and describes his ideal image. Christ fulfils this image at a transcendent level, affirming that David himself is mysteriously alluding to his authority when, in Psalm 110, he calls the Messiah "my Lord" (cf Mt 22, 45).

From Old Testament history several characteristic features of Christ’s face emerge, a face that is somehow "sketched" in the features of the persons who prefigured him.

5. Christ is not only present in these prefigurations, but also in the prophetic texts of the Old Testament that describe his coming and his saving work.

He is foretold in a particular way in the figure of the mysterious "descendant" of which Genesis speaks in the account of original sin, stressing his victory in the struggle with the enemy of humanity. The divine oracle promises to the man dragged down the path of evil the coming of another man, descended from the woman, who will bruise the serpent’s head (Gn 3, 15).

The prophetic poems of the Suffering Servant (Is 42:1-4; 49:1-6; 50:4-9; 52:13-53:12) put before our eyes a liberator who begins to reveal the face of Christ in its moral perfection. It is the face of a man who expresses his messianic dignity in the humble condition of a servant. He offers himself in sacrifice to free humanity from the oppression of sin. He behaves in an exemplary way in his physical and especially moral sufferings, generously enduring injustices. As the fruit of his sacrifice, he receives a new life and obtains universal salvation.

His sublime conduct will be found again in Christ, the Son of God made man, whose humility reaches an insuperable height in the mystery of the Cross."

After the Catechesis, Papa San Giovanni Paolo II greeted the pilgrims in various languages:

"Je suis heureux de saluer les pèlerins de langue française venus participer à cette audience. Alors que nous sommes entrés dans le temps de l'Avent, je les invite à se préparer avec ferveur à accueillir le Sauveur du monde, pour en être les généreux témoins autour d'eux. À tous, je donne de grand coeur la Bénédiction apostolique.

I extend a warm welcome to the English-speaking pilgrims and visitors. In particular I thank the Harlem Gospel Singers for their praise of God in song. May your visit to Rome, with its memorials of the Apostles Peter and Paul, strengthen your faith and trust in the Lord. Upon all present I gladly invoke the joy and peace of Jesus Christ.

Mit diesen Gedanken heiße ich alle deutschsprachigen Pilger und Besucher herzlich willkommen. Mein besonderer Gruß gilt dem Männergesangverein Eintracht aus Ingenheim und der Pilgergruppe aus Lonsee. Euch allen und Euren Lieben daheim sowie den mit uns über Radio Vatikan und das Fernsehen verbundenen Gläubigen erteile ich gerne den Apostolischen Segen.

Saludo ahora cordialmente a todos los peregrinos de lengua española y, en particular, a los fieles venidos desde la arquidiócesis mexicana de San Luis Potosí, y desde Chile, Perú y España. Invocando sobre vosotros el nombre de Jesús, Señor del cosmos y de la historia, de la que es el Alfa y la Omega, el Principio y el Fin, os imparto con afecto la Bendición Apostólica.

A minha cordial saudação para todos os peregrinos e ouvintes de língua portuguesa. Este tempo do Advento recorda-nos que a humanidade precisa de Jesus Cristo; sede sempre Suas testemunhas, convictas e coerentes, junto dos vossos queridos e vizinhos. Sobre todos, desça a minha Bênção.


Rivolgo un cordiale saluto ai pellegrini di lingua italiana, in particolare al gruppo della Società ADEMCO, alla delegazione NASA, unitamente agli astronauti della recente missione spaziale con i loro congiunti, invitati in Italia da alcune personalità aretine e dall'Istituto "Margaritone" di Arezzo e qui accompagnati dal Vescovo diocesano, Monsignor Flavio Roberto Carraro.

Saluto la delegazione di Ferrara e di Modena, accompagnata dagli Arcivescovi delle rispettive diocesi, venuta per presentare la riproduzione della famosa Bibbia di Borso d'Este, prodotta a Ferrara e custodita presso la Biblioteca Estense di Modena. Auspico di cuore che tale importante iniziativa contribuisca ad accrescere la conoscenza del Testo Sacro.

Saluto anche il gruppo di dirigenti nazionali, regionali e provinciali della Confederazione Italiana Agricoltori, come pure i membri dell'Associazione "Cantare Suonando" di Trento, i ragazzi ed i genitori del Centro di Formazione Culturale e Sportiva Calasanzio dei Padri Scolopi di Monteboro-Empoli.

Carissimi, ringrazio tutti per la vostra presenza e formulo voti perché il Signore, in questo tempo di Avvento, vivifichi con la sua grazia le aspirazioni e i propositi di ciascuno.

Mi è gradito, poi, rivolgere un pensiero affettuoso ai giovani, ai malati e agli sposi novelli.

Cari giovani, vi invito a riscoprire, nel clima spirituale dell'Avvento, l'intimità con Cristo alla scuola della Vergine Maria. Raccomando a voi, cari ammalati, di trascorrere questo periodo di attesa e di preghiera incessante, offrendo al Signore che viene le vostre prove quotidiane per la salvezza del mondo.

Esorto, infine, voi, cari sposi novelli, ad essere costruttori di autentiche famiglie cristiane, ispirandovi al modello della Santa Famiglia di Nazaret, che contempliamo particolarmente in questo tempo di preparazione al Natale.

A tutti una speciale Benedizione."

© Copyright - Libreria Editrice Vaticana